Limitation: This measure is referred to as the migration rate, or the leachable level. The standard places restrictions on the migration rate of eight toxic elements; Arsenic, Mercury, Selenium, Chromium, Antimony, Cadmium, Lead and Barium.
Reason: Toys,children's jewelry,packing materials,food containers,ceramicware, furniture,stationary and metal components,etc. usually contain certain heavy metals in the raw materials they use, which can accumulate in human bodies and cause harm when exceeding certain level, it may also affect our genetics cell, causing teratogenic and cancers
Limitation: The limitation of concertation of phthalates（DEHP、DBP、BBP、DINP、DIDP、DNOP） in the products.
Reason: Phthalate is a group of chemical compounds, mainly used in PVC materials to act as plasticizers and convert hard plastics to elastic ones. However, improper use of phthalate can affect normal activities of hormone,do harm to liver, kidney, lung and budding testicle.
Limitation: The Restriction of use of certain Hazardous Substances Directive (2002/95/EC) abbreviated to "RoHS" was adopted in 2003 and came into force in the European Union (EU) on 1st July 2006. Eight broad categories of equipment are in scope of this directive and these must not contain six hazardous substances above permitted values unless covered by an exemption. The six substances are: Lead, Cadmium, Mercury, Hexavalent Chromium, Polybrominated biphenyls or PBB, Polybrominated biphenyl ethers or PBDE.
Reason: These six substances are restricted to used in certain amount for the following reasons:
Lead is toxic, a suspect carcinogen and is a mutagen. When ingested or inhaled in small quantities, lead accumulates in the body having a variety of harmful effects. At fairly low levels it detrimentally affects the learning ability of children and causes a reduction in IQ. Lean posioning have the symptoms of blindness, insanity and eventually death.。
Cadmium is very toxic, the main effect of cadmium poisoning is kidney damage and renal failure. At higher doses it causes damage to the respiratory system and bone disease. Cadmium is also a carcinogen and mutagen.
Mercury is also very toxic, a suspect carcinogen and a mutagen.
- Hexavalent chromium
Hexavalent chromium is toxic and a known carcinogen when inhaled. It may also be carcinogenic by ingestion but this is less certain.
- Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB)
Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) is toxic, a suspect chemicals that disrupt our endocrine system.
- Polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDE)
Polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDE) is toxic, a suspect chemicals that disrupt our endocrine system.
Limitation: The concentration limitation of (BaP) in petrochemical products, rubber, plastics, lubricants, anti-rust oil, incomplete combustion of organic compounds.
Reason: Health effects from chronic or long- term exposure to PAHs may include cataracts, kidney and liver damage and jaundice. Repeated contact with skin may induce redness and skin inflammation. Naphthalene, a specific PAH, can cause the breakdown of red blood cells if inhaled or ingested in large amounts.
Limitation: Halogens, non-metal elements include Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, and Astatine, the maximum concentration can't not excess 1500PPM
Reason: Halogenated plastic materials will release corrosive and toxic gases if ignited in a fire. The corrosive element(i.e. Chlorine) of these gases has the risk to damage electronics function. The toxic element may also affect human immune and endocrine system. Toxicity study has also classified these toxic elements are potentially carcinogenic, heterogenic risk in human.
- May not be placed on the market or used as a substance or constituent of preparations in a concentration equal to or higher than 0,005 % by mass.
- May not be placed on the market in semi-finished products or articles, or parts thereof, if the concentration of PFOS is equal to or higher than 0,1 % by mass calculated with reference to the mass of structurally or microstructurally distinct parts that contain PFOS or, for textiles or other coated materials, if the amount of PFOS is equal to or higher than 1 μg/m2 of the coated material.
Reason: PFOS is an extremely stable chemical compound, resisting degradation in the environment. Like PFOA, PFOS also accumulates in the liver, blood and milk. PFOS has been associated in animal studies with developmental toxicity, cancer and impairment of thyroid, liver and immune system functions. Scientists have discovered that PFOS “readily crosses the placenta and is secreted in milk”in humans. Like PFOS, emerging science suggests that PFOS may be associated with infertility in women.he U.S. EPA conducted a risk assessment of PFOS and found “suggestive evidence ”that PFOS could cause cancer in humans.
Limitation: The Directive requires the EU member states to adopt, publish and apply the following provisions:
- Effective from 1 March 2011, no manufacturer may use BPA in the manufacture of polycarbonate feeding bottles intended for infants under the age of 12 months;
- Effective from 1 June 2011, the ban will extend to all bottles placed on market including imported products intended for infants under the age of 12 months;
- For other food contact materials and articles, the specific migration limit of Bisphenol A is retained as 0.6 mg/kg.
Reason: Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used as monomer in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Polycarbonate plastics are used amongst others in the manufacture of infant feeding bottles. When heated under certain conditions, small amounts of BPA can potentially leach out from food containers into foods and beverages and be ingested, which may increase the risk of biochemical changes in brain, immune-modulatory effects and enhanced susceptibility to breast tumour.